Oncology Referral Network of America - ORNOA
Conditions Treated

 

Bone Cancer
  1. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors: a group of cancers that includes Ewing tumor of the bone (ETB or Ewing sarcoma of the bone), extraosseous Ewing (EOE) tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET or peripheral neuropithelioma), and Askin tumors (PNET of the chest wall). These tumors all come from the same type of stem cell. Also called EFTs.

  2. Osteosarcoma: primary bone cancer is cancer that forms in cells of the bone. Some typed of primary cancer are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytma, and chondrosarcoma. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that spreads to the bone form another part of the body (such as prostate, breast or lung)

Specialists that treat bone cancer:
Hematology-Oncologists, Pain Management physicians, Radiation Oncologists

Brain Tumors

When most normal cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old damaged cells don’t die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often form a mass tissue called a growth or tumor.

Primary brain tumors can be benign or malignant:

Benign brain tumors do not contain cancer cells, and can be removed, and they seldom grow back. Benign brain tumors usually have an obvious border or edge. Cells form benign tumors rarely invade tissues around them. They don’t spread to other parts of the body. However, benign tumors can press on sensitive areas of the brain and cause serious health problems and sometimes life threatening. Benign tumors may become malignant.

Malignant brain tumors (also called brain cancer) contains cancer cells and are generally more serious and often are a threat to life. They are likely to grow rapidly and crowd or invade the nearby healthy brain tissue. Cancer cells may break away from malignant brain tumors and spread to other parts of the brain or to the spinal cord. They rarely spread to other parts of the body.

TUMOR GRADE: Doctors group brain tumors by grade. The grade of a tumor refers to the way the cells look under a microscope.

Grade I: the tissue is malignant. The cells look nearly like normal brain cells and they grow slowly.

Grade II: the tissue is malignant. The cells look less like normal cells than do the cells in a Grade I tumor.

Grade III: the malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. The abnormal cell is actively growing. (anaplastic)

Grade IV: the malignant tissue has cells that look most abnormal and tend to grow quickly.

Most common types of primary brain tumors are:

- Astrocytoma
- Gioblastoma
- Meningioma
- Oligodendroglioma
- Medulloblastoma
- Ependymoma
- Brain stem glioma



Specialists that treat brain tumors:
Neurosurgeons, Radiation Oncologist

Breast Cancer

Cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple) and lobules (glands that make the milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare.

Tests that examine the breasts are used to detect (find) and diagnose breast cancer. A doctor should be seen if changes in the breast are noticed. The following tests and procedures may be used:

- Mammogram (an X-ray of the breast)

- Biopsy: the removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a Pathologist to check for signs of cancer. If a lump in the breast is found, the doctor may need to remove a small piece of the lump.

4 types of biopsies are as follows:

  1. Excisional biopsy: the removal of the entire lump of tissue
  2. Incisional biopsy: the removal
  3. Core biopsy: the removal of tissue using a wide needle
  4. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy: the removal of tissue, using a thin needle

- Estrogen and progesterone receptor test: a test to measure the amount of estrogen and progesterone (hormone) receptors in cancer tissue. If cancer is found in the breast, tissue from the tumor is checked in the laboratory to find out whether estrogen and progesterone could affect the way the cancer grows. The test results show whether hormone therapy may stop the cancer from growing.

- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): a procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called a nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).

Five standards treatments used for breast cancer are:

  1. Chemotherapy
  2. Hormone therapy
  3. Radiation therapy
  4. Targeted therapy
  5. Surgery

Specialists that treat breast cancer:
Hematology-Oncologists, Gynecologists, Radiation Oncologists

Endocrine Cancers: pituitary & thyroid

Cancer that occurs in the endocrine tissue, the tissue in the body that secretes hormones. In areas such as glands, thyroid, adrenal, et al. Cancers under this category include:

- Adrenocortical Carcinoma

- Carcinoid Tumor, Gastrointestinal

- Islet Cell Tumors (Endocrine Pancreas)

- Parathyroid Cancer

- Pituitary Tumor

- Thyroid Cancer

Specialists that treat endocrine cancers:
Endocrinologists, General Surgeons, Neurosurgeons, Radiation Oncologists, Hematology-Oncologists

Gastrointestinal Cancers: colon, pancreas, stomach, liver

Are cancers where malignant cells exist in different tissues part of the digestive system. These tumors can be fast growing or slow growing and characteristically difficult to find without diagnostic tests. Cancers under this category include:

- Anal Cancer
- Appendix Cancer
- Bile duct Cancer, Extrahepatic
- Carcinoid tumor, Gastrointestinal
- Colon Cancer
- Esophageal Cancer
- Gallbladder Cancer
- Liver Cancer
- Pancreatic Cancer
- Rectal Cancer
- Small Intestine Cancer
- Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

Specialists that treat digestive/gastrointestinal cancers:
General Surgeons, GI specialists, Radiation Oncologists, Hematology-Oncologists

Germ Cancers: ovarian & testicular

Germ Cell: refers to a type of tumor that begins in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs. Germ cell tumors can occur almost anywhere in the body and can be either benign (non cancer) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common cancers are: Ovarian and Testicular

Specialists that treat Ovarian and Testicular cancers:
Urologists, Gynecologists, Hematology-Oncologists

Genitourinary Cancers: bladder & kidney

Genitourinary: cancer that concentrates in the urinary mechanism of the body, such as in the bladder or kidney.

Common cancers include:

- Bladder Cancer

- Kidney (Renal Cell)

- Penile Cancer

- Renal pelvis and Ureter cancer, Transitional Cell

- Testicular Cancer

- Urethral Cancer

Specialists that treat genitourinary cancers:
Urologists, Nephrologists, General Surgeons, Radiation Oncologists, Hematology-Oncologists

Gynecology Cancer

Gynecologic: cancer of the female reproductive tract, including the cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus and vagina.

Specialists that treat gynecologic cancers:
Gynecologists, Uro-Gynecologists, GY-Obstreticians,Hematology-Oncologists, Radiation Oncologists

Head & Neck Cancer

Head and Neck: cancer that arises in the head or neck region (in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands, throat, or larynx (voice box).

Head and Neck Cancers:

- Hypopharyngeal Cancer
- Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer
- Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary
- Mouth Cancer
- Nasopharyngeal Cancer
- Oral Cavity Cancer, Lip
- Oropharyngeal Cancer
- Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer
- Parathyroid
- Pharyngeal Cancer
- Salivary Gland Cancer
- Throat Cancer
- Thyroid Cancer

Specialists that treat Head and Neck cancers:
Oral Maxillary Surgeons, Ear Nose & Throat Physicians, Hematology-Oncologists, Radiation Oncologists

Hematologic Cancers: leukemia & lymphoma

Hematologic cancers: refers to cancers of the blood or bone marrow. There are numerous types of blood cancers, with the two most common being: Leukemia and Lymphoma.

Leukemia:

- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Adult
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Adult
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
- Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
- Hairy Cell Leukemia

Lymphoma:

- AIDS-related Lymphoma
- Cutaneuous T-Cell Lymphoma
- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, Adult
- Mycosis Fungoides
- Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Adult
- Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
- T-Cell Lymphoma, Cutaneous

Other:

-Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders
-Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasm
-Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases

Specialists who treat blood related cancers:
Hematology Oncologists

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer: forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under the microscope.

*Non small cell lung cancer has different kinds of cancer cells. The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. The types of non-small cell lung cancer are named for the kind of cells in the cancer and how the cells look under a microscope:

- Squamous cell carcinoma: cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales. Also called epidermoid carcinoma.

- Large cell carcinoma: cancer that may begin in several types of large cells.

- Adenocarcinoma: cancer that begins in the cells that line the alveoli (air sacs) and makes substances such as mucus.

*NSCLC is the most common of the two lung cancer categories.
Other less common types of non-small cell lung cancer are: pleomorphic, carcinoid tumor, salivary gland carcinoma, and unclassified carcinoma.
There are two types of small cell lung cancer, and each includes many different types of cells. The types of small cell lung cancer are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look when viewed under a microscope.

- Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer)

- Combined small cell carcinoma.

Specialists that treat lung cancer:
Thoracic Surgeons, Pulmonologists, Hematology-Oncologists, Radiation Oncologists

Melanoma Cancer: skin

Melanoma: is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form the skin cells called melanocytes (cells that color your skin). Melanoma can occur anywhere in the body. In men, melanoma is often found in the trunk (the area from the shoulders to the hips) or the head and neck. In women, melanoma often develops on the arms and legs. Melanoma usually occurs in adults, but it sometime found in children and adolescents. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

- The stage of melanoma (whether cancer is found in the outer layer of skin only, or has spread to the lymph nodes, or to other places in the body.

- Whether there was bleeding or ulceration at the primary site.

- The location and size of the tumor.

- The patient’s general health.

Although many people are successfully treated, melanoma can come back.

Specialists that treat melanoma:
dermatologists, general surgeons, hematology- oncologists

Prostate Cancer

Prostate: cancer that forms in tissues of the prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men. As men age, the prostate my get bigger and block the urethra or bladder. This may cause difficulty in urination or can interfere with sexual function. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed to correct it. The symptoms of BPH or of other problems in the prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer. There are different types of treatment for patients with prostate cancer:

- Watchful waiting

- Surgery

- Radiation Therapy

- Hormone Therapy

Specialists that treat prostate conditions:
Urologists, Family Practice Physicians, Radiation Oncologists